Scoliosis is a disease of the spine that arises from a variety of causes. The most common cause of scoliosis is idiopathic, which usually starts to develop in childhood and gradually worsens with the growth and age of the individual. It is a curvature and rotation of the spine in unnatural directions. If the curvature reaches 20°, according to Cobb, corset therapy is indicated for the child. If the curvature reaches 40° according to Cobb, surgery is indicated for the patient. The incidence of this disease is growing, especially in rapidly developing urban areas where children are not given enough stimuli for healthy motor development. In the past, the number of children with idiopathic scoliosis in the European population was 3-4%. However, a higher number can be expected nowadays.
Patients with this diagnosis can also be successfully treated with a conservative rehabilitation procedure. However, targeted rehabilitation for scoliotic patients is not usually available and is not carried out at an intensity that could prevent or treat the worsening of the curve. Children are also often referred to physiotherapy at an advanced stage of the disease and growth, where the chances of improvement are smaller.
The Adam’s test is used to determine the percentage of children with scoliosis. It is a simple test that has been carried out in practice for many decades and that clearly shows the curvature and rotation of the spine. The child undresses halfway down his or her body so that his or her back can be seen and then he or she bends forward slowly. During the forward bend, scoliosis turns out to be either positive or negative. Thus, the test clearly rules out or detects the disease. If the test turns out to be positive, patients are referred to an orthopaedic clinic to have the diagnosis confirmed with an X-ray and then start conservative treatment.
An important prerequisite for the success of conservative treatment in children with idiopathic scoliosis is early detection of a small curve. A child´s early years (ages 4-10) are also crucial.. Even if the patient has no problems yet, scoliosis must be treated before degenerative changes in the spine occur. And we shouldn’t forget about early prevention, promote healthy natural movement in children and regenerate their musculoskeletal system with proper exercise.